What
Borelisborelis-elat-1
Borelis schlumbergeri
Calcarinaxgaudichaudii-sesoko-4
Calcarina gaudichaudii
Dendritinaxzhengae-sesoko-1
Dendritina zhengae
Allogromiaxxzypernx-12959-1
Allogromia sp.
Nemogullmiax2610
Shepheardella sp.
Parasorites-japan-2
Parasorites sp.
Rottness019
Peneroplis planatus
Rottness029
Sorites sp.
Carterina68b
Carterina sp.
Cyclorbiculinaxcompressa-tennesseexreef-4
Cyclorbiculina depressa
Baculogypsinaxsphxrulata-sesoko-1
Baculogypsina sphaerulata
Bolivinax13116-aquarium-5
Bolivina sp.
Calcarinaxhispida1-lizardxisland-1
Calcarina hispida
14032-5
Calcarina gaudichaudii
14027-3
Baculogypsina sphaerulata
Trochamminaxinflata-5
Trochammina inflata
Image0041
Patellina corrugata
Foram05
Heterostegina sp.
Foram10
Amphisorus sp. and Heterostegina sp.
Imgp6942b2
Cornuspira sp.
Imgp6934b2
Amphisorus sp.
Imgp6935b2
Rhabdammina sp.
Rodolphe04
Pedro sorting forams

is the foram barcoding project?

Foraminifera are a highly diverse group of unicellular eukaryotes, characterized by a granular pseudopodial network called granuloreticulopodia. The majority of Foraminifera possesses a test (shell) that is composed of an organic, agglutinated or calcareous wall and has one or multiple chambers. Foraminifera are abundant and widely distributed in all types of marine environments, but are also present in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Some species have developed symbiotic relationships with various groups of protists and bacteria.

The identification of foraminiferal species is mainly based on the morphology of their tests. Here we propose a complementary identification system based on DNA fragments specific to each species, called DNA barcodes. For each species present in our database, you will find its general description, photos, collection data, DNA sequences, and references to related publications. The database is manually curated and differs from other foraminiferal catalogues by including only species, for which both molecular and morphological data are available. Our objective is to provide a complete, high quality and freely accessible resource of information about modern foraminiferal species.

How

do we obtain the molecular data? Methodological approach

The barcoding region is situated at the 3’ end of the SSU rRNA gene and is amplified using the primer pairs s14F3 (acgcamgtgtgaaacttg)-sB (tgatccttctgcaggttcacctac). It is usually necessary to perform a nested PCR, replacing primer 14F3 by primer 14F1 (aagggcaccacaagaacgc). The barcoding region spans six foraminifera-specific hypervariable expansion segments, 37f, 41f, 43f, 45e, 47f, 49e that were shown to be sufficiently variable to distinguish closely related species (Pawlowski & Lecroq 2010). The length of the barcoding region varies between 1000-1200 nt depending on the species.

Most amplifications are done on single-cell DNA extractions. Because of intra-individual polymorphism, the amplification products are cloned and 2-3 clones are sequenced. Whenever it is possible, this is done for 3 specimens of the same population to evaluate intraspecific variation.

Methods
The 3’ fragment of the SSU rRNA gene with the six hyper-variable regions (in yellow) and the barcoding region (in red). The helix numbers (f – foraminiferan specific, e – eukaryotic) are indicated above the schema; the position of amplification primers is indicated below.
How

to contribute to the foramBarcoding Project?

We would greatly appreciate your contribution. A common effort is needed to establish a large molecular database that covers different species from various geographic regions and habitats. Foraminifera specialists with taxonomic expertise are invited to deposit well identified species to make them available to the foraminiferal community.

To contribute you can either send living specimens or specimens preserved in DNA extraction buffer supplied by us. For each species we need at least 5 specimens for molecular analysis and 5 voucher specimens for further morphological investigation. A form with detailed collection data needs to be filled in for each collected species.

Please contact Maria Holzmann for any further information.

Who

are the coordinators?

The foramBarcoding project is coordinated by Jan Pawlowski and Maria Holzmann from the Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva.

Funded by
125 species – 346 specimens Browse the database NOW!