Genera

Alveolinella

Test ellipsoidal to fusiform or cylindrical, rarely spherical. Chambers rapidly increasing in width resulting in progressive elongation of the test. Apertures in a double row.

Amphisorus

Large discoidal test, biconcave with thickened rims. Cyclic chambers subdivided by chamberlets. Apertures consist of numerous pores on the peripheral margin arranged in two or more alternating rows.

Androsina

Flat test, early stage planispirally coiled and involute, chambers rapidly increasing in breadth so that test becomes peneropliform, then flabelliform and finally ends in broad strongly arched chambers.

Archaias

Compressed test with rounded periphery, early stage planispiral and involute with a thickened central boss. later chambers become cyclical.

Arnoldiellina

Test free, monothalamous, fusiform, <300 um in length and <70um in width;organic wall transparent from 2to7um in width, thicker around the aperture. The single aperture is funnel-shape with a tubular internal extension. Multinucleate cytoplasm (up to 11 nuclei); granular, in constant rapid movement. Reticulopodes very active with rapidly forming reticulopodial network and fast moving granules. Specimens emit GAF (green autofluorescence), which disappeared with fixation.

Astrammina

Test free, large, up to 6.5 mm in diameter, in the form of a single spherical or flattened polygonal chamber with one to five narrow stolon-like arms radiating in various directions but usually in nearly the same plane and the longest ones commonly very flexible, may also have fragile conical projections and may produce rounded buds; protoplasmic body enclosed in a thick tripartite theca with a single oral region.

Bathyallogromia

Test monothalamous, almost spherical, 140–450 mm in diameter; wall transparent, proteinaceous, with smooth outer surface devoid of agglutinated grains; single aperture located in the centre of low, broad projecting region; cytoplasm light grey or greenish, containing various inclusions which often include mineral particles.

Bowseria

Test free, monothalamous, elongate, tubular, up to 2 mm in length and 0.5 mm in width; single terminal aperture without gromiids−like oral capsule; wall transparent, organic, with smooth outer surface; cytoplasm granular, white or yellow in color, without stercomata.

Broeckina

Discoidal test with annular chambers that have internal subdivisions. Living specimens are green due to chlorophycean endosymbionts. Occurence: Carribean Sea.

Capsammina

Species of Capsammina characterised by strongly flattened test dominated by 2-3 flat, parallel mica plates. Plates separated by more or less oval ring of white mortar composed of fine mineral grains and enclosing cell body. Both mortar and cell body visible though transparent plates.

Carterina

Carterina Brady (1884) is defined by its secreted calcareous spicules.Loeblich and Tappan (1955) created the family Carterinidae and suborder Carterinina (Loeblich and Tappan, 1981).

Cedhagenia

Morphologically, the new genus is most similar to vellaria, notably in the presence in some specimens of a delicate, flared apertural extension. However, this structure is not as well developed as in Vellaria and the overall test shape is more lenticular. Molecular analyses indicate that Cedhagenia is not related related to Vellaria but most closely related to Ovammina.

Cibicidoides

Test in a low trochospiral coil, spiral side flattened but slightly involute, final whorl slightly elevated and partly overlapping the preceding one.

Conqueria

Test free, monothalamous, elongate, tubular, up to 1000 mm long and 50 to 100mm wide with a simple aperture at the end of a short terminal neck.Wall very ¢nely agglutinated with a very smooth, non-re£ective outer surface. Cytoplasm without stercomata.

Cyclorbiculina

Large discoidal test, early stages planispiral and involute, producing a central thickened part of the test, later chambers become annular.

Elphidium

Test planispiral, bilaterally symmetrical; sutural canal system opens into a single row of pores; septal bridges usually hollow and contain a retral process; aperture a series of large circular pores at base of aperture face.

Gloiogullmia

Test elongate ovate to sausage-shaped, up to 2mm in length. Wall of two more or less separated proteinaceous membranes, single aperture, cytoplasm with numerous inclusions.

Leannia

test free, monothalamous, ovoid shape (ratio length/width between 1 and 2), < 115um in length and < 85 um in width; organic wall transparent from 1 to 3 um in width. Two opposite apertures, funnel-shaped with a tubular internal extension. Cytoplasm multinucleate at least in this stage of its life cycle; granular, with rapid movement. Reticulopodes very active with rapidly forming large reticulopodial network and fast moving granules.

Leptammina

Test free, monothalamous and more or less spherical, up to 2 mm diameter. Wall delicate, flexible, with inner organic layer overlain by fine, loosely agglutinated mineral grains. Single prominent circular aperture, which may protrude slightly from the test surface. Cell body with well-developed peduncular sheath.

Marginopora

Large discoidal test, biconcave with thickened periphery, apertures consist of numerous small circular openings on the peripheral wall.

Marsipella

Elongate agglutinated test, up to 6mm in length; sand grains, sponge spicules or tests of other foraminifers are incorporated in the agglutinated wall.

Nellya

The genus differs from Saccammina and Leptammina in the shape of the test /elongate rather than approximately spherical) and the presence of a nipple-like apertural structure, which is quite unlike the simple round opening that characterizes these two genera.

Neorotalia

Single or compound umbilical plug, aperture restricted by a toothplate that protrudes with a free edge into the aperture and forms an umbilical spiral canal.

Nonionella

Low trochospiral test, slightly compressed, rounded periphery, spiral side partially evolute around an umbonal boss, umbilical side involute, chambers with flaplike projections overhanging the umbilicus.

Notodendrodes

Large agglutinated test consisting of a bulbous central area of which a branching system of holdfasts emerges. Bulb and holdfasts are buried in the mud with a vertical stalklike portion projecting above the surface and ending in an arborescent and flexible structure.

Operculina

Test planispiral and evolute, flattened, numerous narrow chambers in many rapidly expanding whorls, sutures strongly curved back at the periphery.

Operculinella

Smooth exterior, undivided chambers. External similarities in shape to N. venosus but is distinguished by the latter by the possession of trabeculae. Thick lenticular central part and flat final chambers in large individuals.

Oridorsalis

Lenticular, low trochospiral test, spiral side evolute with three slowly enlarging whorls, four to five chambers in the final whorl, umbilical side involute.

Parasorites

Discoidal test with annular chambers that are subdivided into chamberlets. Green colour in living specimens is caused by chlorophycean endosymbionts. Occurence: Indopacific.

Psammophaga

Pyriform to ovoid test, wall of thick transparent flexible matrix with a thinner outer agglutinated covering, terminal simple aperture.

Rhizammina

Test consists of complex system of fine, branching tubules of even diameter. Test wall simple; agglutinated particles argillaceous. Stercomata (faecal pellets) accumulate within tubules.

Shinkaiya

The new genus resembles species of the genus Syringammina, in particular the type species Sy. fragilissima. The genera are similar in the general shape and construction of the test, which consists of a framework of bar-like elements, forming a tightlymeshed, often reticulated structure. The main morphological difference between the new genus and Syringammina is the nature of the test wall. In Syringammina, the wall is brittle, with a smooth inner surface, and consists of ‘tightly cemented xenophyae’ (Tendal, 1972). These comprise mainly fine sand grains and small foraminiferan tests in Sy. fragilissima. Shinkaiya, on the other hand, is characterized by a relatively thick wall that is soft rather than brittle, and consists mainly of clay-sized sediment particles.

Sorites

Discoidal test, early chambers are peneroplid, later chambers become annular and divided into chamberlets that are connected by a stolon system. Apertures occur along the peripheral margin, they are more or less circular and surrounded by a calcified rim. Living specimens have a brownish colour due to Symbiodinium endosymbionts.

Syringammina

The test is constructed by numerous tubes of tightly cemented xenophyae. The tubes are arranged in a radiating manner, single tubes being connected with other tubes by side branches. The xenophyae are restricted to the tube walls, and only granellare and stercomare are found in the interior.

Textularia

Biserial test, agglutinated walltraversed by canaliculi that may open as perforations. Aperture a low arch or slit at the base of the apertural face

Toxisarcon

Cell body large (up to several centimeters diameter), either covered by agglutinated test or entirely naked and resembling an amoeba. Where present, test is free with central inflated region giving rise to several branches that generally taper and multifurcate terminally. Test wall agglutinated with little particle selectivity and poorly cemented.

Trifarina

Elongate test, sharply triangular in section and early stage triserial, later uniserial and rectangular. Aperture surrounded by a low collar.

Vellaria

Monothalamous test, characterised by the development of a flared, conical or trumpet-shaped apertural structure which apparently serves to attach the test to small sand grains.

Virgulinella

Test elongate, early stage triserial, later biserial. Chambers slightly inflated and strongly over-lapping, final pair comprising about two-thirds the test length, lower margin of chambers with numerous narrow bridgelike projections that cross the slightly constricted sutures; wall calcareous, finely perforate. Aperture an oblique loop in the apertural face, provided with a reduced toothplate that commences near the previous foramen and attaches to the lower part of the chamber wall, continuing to the lower border of the aperture, wjth supplementary sutural openings between the sutural bridges.

Zaninettia

Test free or attached; wall agglutinated, with spicules, imperforate; trochospiral in early, irregular growth in adult stage; attachment to substratum by umbilical spicular mass or by sheet-like peripheral spicular flange.