Species found in “Reef rubble” (18)

Carterina spiculotesta

Order “Textulariida” > Family “Carterinidae” > Genus “Carterina

Original description Carter H.J., 1877, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London, 4, 470-473
Further reference Hansen H.J., Gronlund H., 1977, Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 26, 147-154
Further reference Deutsch S., Lipps J.H., 1976, Journal of Paleontology, 50, 312-317
Further reference Angell W., 1978, Journal of Paleontology, 52, 182-185

General description

Specimens of this species possess a large white peripheral flange composed of a mass of calcareous spicules similar to that illustrated in the original description of Carterina spiculotesta (Carter, 1877). Tests are trochospiral throughout with chambers increasing rapidly in size. The last whorl comprises only 2-3 chambers. The deep umbilicus may be filled up with a spicular mass that may extend into the peripheral flange. Only the first (about 10) chambers are brownish in color, the other ones are yellowish or white. The spicules are elongated, fusiform, arranged somewhat parallel to the periphery on the spiral side and radial on the umbilical side.

Representative pictures

Carterina spiculotesta
3 specimens

Heterostegina depressa

Order “Rotaliida” > Family “Nummulitidae” > Genus “Heterostegina

Original description Orbigny, A. D’, 1826, Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelles, Paris, 7, 1-275
Description Hohenegger, J., Yordanova, E., Hatta, A., 2000, J. Foram. Res., 30, 3-28
Further reference Holzmann M., Hohenegger J., Pawlowski J., 2003, J. For. Res., 33, 277-284 (127 KB)
Further reference Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Hohenegger, J., 2006, Symbiosis, 42, 93-101 (3.03 MB)
Description Hottinger, L., 1977, Mémoires du Muséum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Paris., 40, Série C, 1-159

General description

Central part of the test is thickened, early chambers are undivided, later ones are divided by secondary septa. Diatom symbionts lead to a brownish colour in living specimens.

Representative pictures

Heterostegina depressa Heterostegina depressa Heterostegina depressa
6 specimens

Laevipeneroplis bradyi

Order “Miliolida” > Family “Soritidae” > Genus “Laevipeneroplis

Original description Cushman, J. A., 1930, Ocean. Bull. US Nat. Mus., 104, 1-79
Further reference Hallock, P., Peebles, W. M., 1993, Mar. Micropal., 277-292
Further reference Holzmann M., Hohenegger J., Hallock P., Piller W.E., Pawlowski J., 2001, Mar. Micropal., 43, 57-74 (602 KB)
Further reference Pawlowski , J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Hallock, P., 2001, J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 48, 362-367 (598 KB)
Description Gudmundsson, G., 1994, Micropaleontology, 40, 101-155
Revision Seiglie, A., G., Grove, K., Rivera, A., J., 1976, Ecol. Geol. Helv., 70, 855-883

General description

Laevipeneroplis bradyi have planispiral tests with chambers that are partially evolute in early stages and later become flaring. Living specimens show a bright green colour due to chlorophycean endosymbionts.

Representative pictures

Laevipeneroplis bradyi Laevipeneroplis bradyi; living specimens
1 specimen

Laevipeneroplis proteus

Order “Miliolida” > Family “Soritidae” > Genus “Laevipeneroplis

Original description Orbigny, A.D., , 1839, 2
Further reference Hallock, P., Peebles, W. M., 1993, Mar. Micropal., 277-292
Further reference Holzmann M., Hohenegger J., Hallock P., Piller W.E., Pawlowski J., 2001, Mar. Micropal., 43, 57-74 (602 KB)
Further reference Pawlowski , J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Hallock, P., 2001, J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 48, 362-367 (598 KB)
Description Gudmundsson, G., 1994, Micropaleontology, 40, 101-155
Description Seiglie, A., G., Grove, K., Rivera, A., J., 1976, Ecol. Geol. Helv., 70, 855-883

General description

Early chambers are planispiral and involute, later ones are more or less flaring. Hallock and Peebles (1993) state that this species is morphologically very variable. Chlorophyte symbionts lead to a green colour in living specimens.

Representative pictures

Laevipeneroplis proteus Laevipeneroplis proteus; living specimen
1 specimen

Laevipeneroplis spp.

Order “Miliolida” > Family “Soritidae” > Genus “Laevipeneroplis

Further reference Holzmann M., Hohenegger J., Hallock P., Piller W.E., Pawlowski J., 2001, Mar. Micropal., 43, 57-74 (602 KB)
Further reference Pawlowski , J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Hallock, P., 2001, J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 48, 362-367 (598 KB)
Description of genus Loeblich, A., J., R., Tappan, H., 1988, vol.1-2, Van Nostrand, Reinhold, New York

General description

Planispiral test with later chambers becoming flaring. Chlorophycean symbionts cause a green colour in living specimens.

Representative pictures

Laevipeneroplis sp. from Guam
2 specimens

Sorites spp.

Order “Miliolida” > Family “Soritidae” > Genus “Sorites

Original description of genus Ehrenberg, C., G., 1839, Physikal. Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 81-174
Further reference Holzmann M., Hohenegger J., Hallock P., Piller W.E., Pawlowski J., 2001, Mar. Micropal., 43, 57-74 (602 KB)
Further reference Pawlowski , J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Pochon, X., Lee, J., J., 2001, J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 48, 368-373 (124 KB)
Further reference Garcia-Cuetos, L., Pochon, X., Pawlowski, J., 2005, Protist, 156, 399-412 (401 KB)
Description of genus Loeblich, A., J., R., Tappan, H., 1988, vol.1-2, Van Nostrand, Reinhold, New York

General description

Discoidal test, early chambers are peneroplid, later chambers become annular and divided into chamberlets that are connected by a stolon system. Apertures occur along the peripheral margin, they are more or less circular and surrounded by a calcified rim. Living specimens have a brownish colour due to Symbiodinium endosymbionts.

Representative pictures

Sorites sp. , Australia, Rottness Island Sorites sp., USA, Florida Keys Sorites sp., Israel, Elat
9 specimens

Zaninettia conica

Order “Textulariida” > Family “Carterinidae” > Genus “Zaninettia

Original description Brönnimann P., Whittaker J.E., 1983, Revue de Paléobiologie, 2, 13-33
Further reference Pawlowski J., Holzmann M., Debenay J.-P., accepted for publication, Journal of Foraminiferal Research

General description

In this species, the first stage is a small, high, conical trochospire consisting of about 2 whorls, flattening out toward the periphery, with a subcircular outline. It is shallow-concave on the umbilical side, with a deep axial depression. The following chambers that make up the flattened second ontogenetic stage are crescent with secondary septa. They become increasingly elongated and are added irregularly, resulting in an unevenly lobed outline of the test. There is no peripheral flange. The spirally elongate-crescent chambers appear as symmetric, petal-shaped, on the umbilical side. The walls are made up of typically “rounded-rectangular” truncated spicules that are scattered. The first chambers are dark brown to blackish while the remaining ones are yellowish or white.

Representative pictures

Zaninettia conica
5 specimens

Zaninettia manaarensis

Order “Textulariida” > Family “Carterinidae” > Genus “Zaninettia

Original description Brönnimann P., Whittaker J.E., 1983, Revue de Paléobiologie, 2, 13-33
Further reference Pawlowski J., Holzmann M., Debenay J.-P., accepted for publication, Journal of Foraminiferal Research

General description

The wall is made up of typically “rounded-rectangular” truncated spicules arranged irregularly. The test begins with a very low-convex trochospiral stage of about 10 chambers, arranged in 2 coils, with oblique sutures. In this stage chambers increase slowly in size. Chambers of the second stage become rapidly elongate-crescent. They are added irregularly and the last ones may have lengths of about one third of the circumference of the chambered test. They are subdivided by secondary septa. The last stage is represented by an irregularly contoured flange, containing randomly dispersed spicules embedded within fine agglutinated particles. The first stage and part of the second stage of the test are dark brown in color. The end of the second stage and the flange are yellowish or white.

Representative pictures

Zaninettia manaarensis
4 specimens