Alexander, S., P., DeLaca, T., E., 1987, Biol. Bull., 173, 136-159

Feeding adaptations of the foraminiferan Cibicides refulgens living epizoically and parasitically on Antarctic scallop Adamussium colbecki.

Alexander, S., P., DeLaca, T., E.

The calcareous foraminifer Cibicides refulgens is a conspicuous and abundant component of the epifaunal community living on the valves of the free-swimming Antarctic scallop, Adamussium colbecki. Examination ofthis association using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, radiotracer, and resin-casting/sectioning techniques, demonstrates that the foramiifer possesses a combination of morphological and physiological adaptations, unique among benthic calcareous foraminifera, which enhance its ability to acquire nutrients in an otherwise oligotrophic and seasonal environment. Three distinct modes of nutrition are employed: (1) grazing the algae and bacteria living upon the scallop shell surface, (2) suspension feeding through the use of a pseudopodial net deployed from a unique superstructure of agglutinated tubes which form an extension to the calcareous test, and (3) parasitism by eroding through the scallop's shell, and using free amino acids from the highly concentrated pool in the extrapallial cavity.

Angell W., 1978, Journal of Paleontology, 52, 182-185

Spiculate Trochammina tests: Carterina analogues?

Angell W.

Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil L., Holzmann M., Pawlowski J., 2013, European Journal of Protistology, 49, 210-216

Arnoldiellina fluorescens sp. nov.-A new green autofluorescent foraminifer from the Gulf of Eilat (Israel)

Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil L., Holzmann M., Pawlowski J.

A new monothalamous (single-chambered) soft-walled foraminiferal species, Arnoldiellina fluorescens gen. et sp. nov., was isolated from samples collected in the Gulf of Eilat, Israel. The species is characterized by a small elongate organic theca with a single aperture of allogromiids. It is characterized by the emission of green autofluorescence (GAF) that has so far not been reported from foraminifera. Phylogenetic analysis of a fragment of the 18S rDNA indicates that the species is related to a group of monothalamous foraminiferans classified as clade I. Although the morphology of the new species is very different compared to the other members of this clade, a specific helix in 18S rRNA secondary structure strongly supports this position.

Asano, K., 1951, Hosokawa Printing, Tokyo, 1-21

Part 14: Rotaliidae. In: Stach LW (ed) Illustrated catalogue of japanese tertiary smaller foraminifera.

Asano, K.

Bailey, J., W., 1851, Smithsonian Inst. Contr. Knowledge, Washington, D. C., USA, 2, p.12

Microscopical examination of soundings made by the United States Coast Survey, off the Atlantic Coast of the United States.

Bailey, J., W.

Banner, F. T., Culver, S. J., 1978, J. For. Res., 8, 191-195

Quaternary Haynesina n. gen. and paleogene Protoelphidium Haynes; their morphology, affinities and distribution.

Banner, F. T., Culver, S. J.

Batsch, A., I., G., C.,, 1791, Jena

Sechs Kupfertafeln mit Conchylien des Seesandes, gezeichnet und gestochen von A. J. G. K. Batsch.

Batsch, A., I., G., C.,

Blainville, H., M., D., 1830, 60, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, F. G. Levrault, Paris

Mollusques, vers et Zoophytes.

Blainville, H., M., D.

Bock, W., D., Lynts, G., W., Smith, S., Wright, R., Hay, W., W., Jones, J., I., 1971, Miami Geological Society Publications, Memoir 1

A symposium of recent South Florida foraminifera.

Bock, W., D., Lynts, G., W., Smith, S., Wright, R., Hay, W., W., Jones, J., I.

Bowser, S., S., Bernhard, J., M., Habura, A., Gooday, A., J., 2002, J. Foram. Res., 32, 364-374

Structure, taxonomy and ecology of Astrammina triangularis (Earland), an allogromiid-like agglutinated foraminifer from Explorers Cove, Antarctica.

Bowser, S., S., Bernhard, J., M., Habura, A., Gooday, A., J.

Brady, H. B., 1876, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 2nd series, 2, 1-600

On some foraminifera from the Loo Choo islands.

Brady, H. B.

In: Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876.

Report on the foraminifera dredged by H.M.S Challemger, during the years 1873-1876.

Brady, H. B.

Brady, H. B., 1881, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., London, 8, 415

On some Arctic foraminifera from soundings obtained on the Austro-Hungarian North-Polar Expedition of 1872-1874.

Brady, H. B.

Brady, H., B., 1879, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, new series., 19, 20-63

Notes on some of the reticularian Rhizopoda of the Challenger Expedition. I. On new or little known arenaceous types.

Brady, H., B.

Brady, H.B., 1881, Quart. J. Microscop. Scie. (London), 21, 31-71

Notes on some of the reticularian rhizopoda of the “Challenger” Expedition, Part III.

Brady, H.B.

Brönnimann P., Whittaker J.E., 1983, Revue de Paléobiologie, 2, 13-33

Zaninettia n.gen., a spicular-walled remaneicid (Foraminiferida, Trochamminacea) from the Indian and South Atlantic oceans with remarks on the origin of spicules

Brönnimann P., Whittaker J.E.

Buzas, M., A., Culver, S., J., Isham, L., B., 1985, Journal of Paleontology, 59, 1075-1090

A comparison of fourteen elphidiid (Foraminiferida) taxa.

Buzas, M., A., Culver, S., J., Isham, L., B.

Carpenter, W., B., 1859, Royal Soc. London, Philos. Trans., 149, 1-41

Research in the Foraminifera. Pt. III. On the genera Peneroplis, Orbiculina and Amphistegina.

Carpenter, W., B.

Carter H.J., 1877, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London, 4, 470-473

Description of a new species of foraminifera (Rotalia spiculotesta)

Carter H.J.

Cartwright, N., G., Gooday, A., J., Jones, A., R., 1989, J. For. Res., 19, 115-125

The morphology, internal organization, and taxonomic position of Rhizammina algaeformis Brady, a large, agglutinated, deap -sea foraminifer

Cartwright, N., G., Gooday, A., J., Jones, A., R.

Cedhagen, T., 1991, Ophelia, 33, 17-30

Retention of chloroplasts and bathymetric distribution in the sublittoral foraminiferan Nonionellina labradorica.

Cedhagen, T.

  • 1991-Cedhagen-Nonionellina.pdf (7.88 MB)
Cedhagen, T., Gooday, A., J., Pawlowski, J., 2009, Zootaxa, 2096, 9-22

A new genus and two new species of saccaminid foraminiferans (Protista, Rhizaria) from the deep Southern Ocean

Cedhagen, T., Gooday, A., J., Pawlowski, J.

  • CedhagenxetxalxZootaxax2009.pdf (1.76 MB)
Cedhagen, T., Pawlowski, J., 2002, J. For. Res., 32, 351-357

Toxisarcon synsuicida n. gen., n. spec., a large monothalamous foraminiferan from the west coast of Sweden

Cedhagen, T., Pawlowski, J.

A new foraminiferan, Toxisarcon synsuicidica n. gen., n. sp., is reported from clay bottoms of Kosterfjorden (Sweden). The species is characterized by a large irregular cell body covered by an organic lining to which foreign particles are attached. It resembles an irregular clump of detritus or sediment aggregation and it can therefore easily be overlooked. Marine biologists who have worked intensively with benthic fauna in the area have never observed it despite the fact that it is quite common. The peculiar feature of the new species is its capacity to stock toxic products that can be harmful to itself if accidentally released.

Chaster, G.,W., 1892, First Report Southport Society of Natural Science, 54-72

Report upon the foraminifera of the Southport Society of Natural Science District.

Chaster, G.,W.

Cimerman, F., Langer, M., , 1991, 30, Academia Scientiarum et Artium Slovenica Classis IV: Historia Naturalis, 1-119

Mediterranean Foraminifera

Cimerman, F., Langer, M.,

Colom, G., 1952, Boletin del Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, 51, 1-44

Foraminiferos de la costa de Galicia.

Colom, G.

Crapon de Caprona d`Ersu, A., 1983, Rev. Paléobiol., 347-390

Contribution à l`étude des Soritidae actuels (Foraminifères)- 3: sous-familles des Archaiasinae, Meandropsininae et Soritinae et conclusions générales.

Crapon de Caprona d`Ersu, A.

Crespin,I., 1960, Tohoku Univ. Sci. Repts. Sendai, Japan, 4, 28-29

Some recent foraminifera from Vestfold Hills, Antarctica.


Cushman, A., J., 1921, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. Washington, D. C., USA, 4

Foraminifera of the Philippine and adjacent seas.

Cushman, A., J.

Cushman, J. A., 1930, Ocean. Bull. US Nat. Mus., 104, 1-79

Foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean.

Cushman, J. A.

Cushman, J. A., 1930, United States National Museum bulletin 104, 79pp.

The foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean, Part 7: Nonionidae, Camerinidae, Peneroplidae and Alveolinellidae.

Cushman, J. A.

Cushman, J., A., 1927, Contr. Cushman Lab. For. Res., 3, 1-105

An outline of a re-classification of the Foraminifera.

Cushman, J., A.

Cushman, J., A., 1923, U.S. Nat. Hist. Mus. Bull. Washington, D. C., USA, 104, 166

The foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean, Part 4 - Lagenidae.

Cushman, J., A.

Cushman, J., A., 1911, Bull. United States Nat. Mus., 71, 1-108

A monograph of the foraminifera of the North Pacific Ocean.Pt. 2. Textulariidae.

Cushman, J., A.

Dawson, J. W., 1860, Canadian Nat. Geol. , Montreal, Canada., 5, 191

Notice of Tertiary fossils from Labrador, Maine, etc. and remarks on the climate of Canada in the near Pliocene or Pleistocene period.

Dawson, J. W.

de Montfort, D., P., 1808, 3, Paris, France, F. Scholl, 123

Conchyliologie systématique et classification méthodique des coquilles.

de Montfort, D., P.

Defrance, J., L., M, 1824, 32, Strasbourg: F.C. Levrault

Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles

Defrance, J., L., M

DeFrance, M., J., L., 1822, Tome 25, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, F. G. Levrault, Paris, 453

Minéralogie et géologie.

DeFrance, M., J., L.

DeLaca, T., 1986, J. For. Res., 16, 216-223

The morphology and ecology of Astrammina rara.

DeLaca, T.

DeLaca, T., Bernhard, J., M., Reilly, A., Bowser, S., S., 2002, J. For. Res., 32, 177-187

Notodendrodes hyalinosphaira (sp. nov.): structure and autecology of an allogromiid-like agglutinated foraminifer.

DeLaca, T., Bernhard, J., M., Reilly, A., Bowser, S., S.

We describe Notodendrodes hyalinosphaira, a large (up to 2.7 cm long), facultatively arborescent, agglutinated foraminifer. The species occurs abundantly, and apparently exclusively, in Explorers Cove, an embayment of western McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The primary agglutinated test is an infaunal, unilocular sphere comprised of a single layer of principally quartz sand grains. Two secondary test features may be associated with the quartz sphere: (1) a thick cover of fine detrital material and/or (2) one, or rarely two, daisy-shaped appendages extending into the water column. These secondary test features in Notodendrodes hyalinosphaira apparently reflect trophic plasticity, ranging from infaunal uptake of dissolved nutrients to suspension feeding. Particle analysis reveals distinct size-class distributions for each test component, indicating a high degree of particle selection. The cell body (sarcode), which occupies approximately half of the quartz-sphere volume, is encased by a theca possessing a single aperture. Notodendrodes hyalinosphaira belongs to unilocular agglutinated foraminifera possessing certain structural similarities with allogromiids.

DeLaca, T., E., Lipps, J., H., Hessler, R., R., 1980, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 69, 205-224

The morphology and ecology of a new large agglutinated Antarctic foraminifer (textulariina: Notodendrodidae nov.).

DeLaca, T., E., Lipps, J., H., Hessler, R., R.

Deutsch S., Lipps J.H., 1976, Journal of Paleontology, 50, 312-317

Test structure of the foraminifer Carterina

Deutsch S., Lipps J.H.

Earland, A., 1933, Discovery Reports, 7, 27-138

Foraminifera, Part II, South Georgia.

Earland, A.

Ehrenberg, C., G., 1839, Physikal. Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 81-174

Ueber die Bildung der Kreidefelsen und des Kreidemergels durch unsichtbare Organismen.

Ehrenberg, C., G.

Ehrenberg, C., G., 1840, Physikal. Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1841: separate 1840, 81-174

Ueber noch jetzt zahlreich lebende Thierarten der Kreidebildung und den Organismus der Polythalamien.

Ehrenberg, C., G.

Fichtel L., Moll J.C.P., 1798, book

Testacea microscopica, aliaque minuta ex genuseribus Argonauta et Nautilus, ad naturam picta et descripta. Vindobona. Camesina.

Fichtel L., Moll J.C.P.

Fichtel, L., Moll, J., P., C., 1798, Vienna, Camesina

Testacea microscopica aliaque minuta ex generibus Argonauta et Nautilus, ad naturam picta et descripta

Fichtel, L., Moll, J., P., C.

Finlay H. J., 1940, Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 69, No.4, 448-221

New Zealand foraminifera: key species in stratigraphy

Finlay H. J.

Forskal, P., 1775, Copenhagen, 125

Descriptiones animalium. (Post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niehbur)

Forskal, P.

Garcia-Cuetos, L., Pochon, X., Pawlowski, J., 2005, Protist, 156, 399-412

Molecular evidence for host-symbiont specificity in soritid foraminifera.

Garcia-Cuetos, L., Pochon, X., Pawlowski, J.

  • Garcia-CuetosxProtist2005.pdf (401 KB)
Goes, A., 1894, Kong. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlinger, 25, 1-127

A synopsis of the Arctic and Scandinavian recent marine Foraminifera hitherto discovered.

Goes, A.

Gooday, A. J., Pawlowski, J., 2004, J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 84, 919-924

Conqueria laevis gen. and sp. nov., a new soft-walled, monothalamous foraminiferan from the deep Weddell Sea

Gooday, A. J., Pawlowski, J.

Conqueria laevis gen. and sp. nov., a new monothalamous agglutinated foraminiferan, is described from core samples collected in the abyssal westernWeddell Sea. The species is characterized by a very elongate, almost cylindrical test that usually follows a more or less curved course and has a single terminal aperture located at the end of a short neck. The wall has a very smooth outer surface and is composed of tiny (55 mm) agglutinated particles.Very similar and presumably congeneric morphotypes occur at northern hemisphere sites, including Arctic fjords around Svalbard and the Porcupine Abyssal Plain. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences, indicate that the new Weddell Sea species forms an independent lineage branching among monothalamous foraminiferans as a sister group to the clade of Psammophaga.

Gooday, A. J., da Silva, A., A., Koho, K., A., Lecroq, B., Pearce, R., B., 2010, Micropaleontology, 56, 345-357

The "mica sandwich"; a remarkable new genus of Foraminifera (Protista, Rhizaria) from the Nazaré Canyon (Portuguese margin, NE Atlantic).

Gooday, A. J., da Silva, A., A., Koho, K., A., Lecroq, B., Pearce, R., B.

Gooday, A., J., Anikeeva, O., V., Pawlowski, J., 2010, Mar. Biodiv., 1-14

New genera and species of monothalamous Foraminifera from Balaclava and Kazach`ya Bays (Crimean Peninsula, Black Sea)

Gooday, A., J., Anikeeva, O., V., Pawlowski, J.

We describe two new genera and species of monothalamous Foraminifera from a coastal site in Balaclava Bay, Crimea. Nellya rugosa gen. and sp. nov. has an elongate, approximately oval test, 120–360 μm long, somewhat resembling a rice grain and with a single nipple-like apertural structure located at the distal end, which is often rather truncated. The wall is whitish, opaque, somewhat flexible and composed of jumbled mineral grains, mostly <10 μm in size, overlying an inner organic layer. Cedhagenia saltatus gen. and sp. nov. has an approximately lenticular test, 150–300 μm long, with a single aperture usually associated with a short, delicate, slightly flared extension of test. The wall is whitish, flexible, translucent with shiny highlights, and composed of a thin layer of plate-like mineral grains, mostly <5 μm in size, overlying an inner organic layer. In both N. rugosa and C. saltatus, the cytoplasm is finely granular, without stercomata. A third species, identified as Vellaria pellucidus Gooday and Fernando 1992 and closely resembling the type material of this species from the Vellar Estuary (India), occurs occasionally in our Balaclava Bay material. Samples from another Crimean Bay (Kazach’ya) yielded an undescribed species of Psammophaga that is most similar to a species from Southampton (UK). The agglutinated wall encloses a cell body that is packed with mineral grains. Analysis of the SSU rDNA sequences obtained from these four species confirmed the position of Psammophaga and Vellaria. Nellya is shown to be a sister group to Vellaria + Psammophaga clade but its position is not well resolved. Cedhagenia belongs to a very different clade of monothalamous foraminiferans, which includes also Ovammina and Cribrothalammina.

  • GoodayxAnikeevaxPawlowskix2010.pdf (1.04 MB)
Gooday, A., J., Fernando, O. J., 1992, J. Micropaleontol., 11, 233-239

A new allogromiid genus (Rhizopoda: Foraminiferida) from the Vellar Estuary, Bay of Bengal.

Gooday, A., J., Fernando, O. J.

Gooday, A., J., Holzmann, M., Guiard, J., Cornelius, N., Pawlowski, J., 2004, Deep Sea Research II, 51, 1603-1616

A new monothalamous foraminiferan from 1000 to 6300 m water depth in the Weddell Sea: morphological and molecular characterisation.

Gooday, A., J., Holzmann, M., Guiard, J., Cornelius, N., Pawlowski, J.

  • Goodayxetxal.x2004.pdf (674 KB)
Grindell D.S., Collen J.D., 1976, Rev. Espanola de Micropaleontol., 8, 273-278

Virgulinella fragilis n. sp. (Foraminiferida) from Wellington Harbor, New Zealand

Grindell D.S., Collen J.D.

Gronovius, L., T., 1781, Haak et Cie (Leyden), Tome 3., 241-380

Zoophylacii Gronoviani.

Gronovius, L., T.

Gudmundsson, G., 1994, Micropaleontology, 40, 101-155

Phylogeny, ontogeny and systematics of Recent Soritacea Ehrenberg 1839 (Foraminiferida).

Gudmundsson, G.

Habura, A., Pawlowski, J., Hanes, S., D., Bowser, S., S., 2004, J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 51, 173-179

Unexpected foraminiferal diversity revealed by small-subunit rDNA analysis of Antarctic sediment.

Habura, A., Pawlowski, J., Hanes, S., D., Bowser, S., S.

  • HaburaxJEM2004x51x205x173x179.pdf (167 KB)
Hallock, P., Peebles, W. M., 1993, Mar. Micropal., 277-292

Foraminifera with chlorophyte endosymbionts: habitats of six species in the Florida Keys.

Hallock, P., Peebles, W. M.

Hansen H.J., Gronlund H., 1977, Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 26, 147-154

Carterina: its morphology, structure and taxonomic position

Hansen H.J., Gronlund H.

Hatta, A., Ujiie, H., 1992, Bull. Coll. Scie. Univ. Ryukyus, 49-119

Benthic foraminifera from the Coral Seas between Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands, Southern Ryukyu Island Arc, Northwest Pacific. Part 1. Systematic descriptions of Textulariina and Miliolina

Hatta, A., Ujiie, H.

Haynes, J., R., 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool. Suppl. 4, 1-245

Cardigan Bay recent foraminifera.

Haynes, J., R.

Hayward, B., W., Hollis, C., Grenfell., H., 1997, New Zealand Geol. Surv. Paleontol. Bull., 72, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences monograph 16.

Recent Elphidiidae (Foraminiferida) of the south-west Pacific and fosssil Elphidiidae of New Zealand.

Hayward, B., W., Hollis, C., Grenfell., H.

Hayward, B., W., Holzmann, M., Grenfell, H., R., Pawlowski, J., 2004, Mar. Micropal., 50, 237-271

Morphological distinction of molecular types in Ammonia-towards a taxonomic revision of the world`s most common and misidentified foraminiferal genus.

Hayward, B., W., Holzmann, M., Grenfell, H., R., Pawlowski, J.

  • HaywardxMM2004xAmmonia.pdf (1.58 MB)
Heron-Allen, E., Earland, A., 1913, Roy. Irish Acad. Proc., 31

Foraminifera. (Clare Island Survey, Pt. 64).

Heron-Allen, E., Earland, A.

Hofker J., 1951, Siboga Exped. Monogr. Leiden, 4b, 498-502

The foraminifera of the Siboga expedition: part III

Hofker J.

Hofker, J., 1927, In: Siboga Expeditie; Uitkomsten op zoologisch, botanisch, oceanographisch en geologisch gebied,versameld in Nedelandsch Oost-Indi 1899-1900 aan boord H.M. Siboga. Leiden, E. J. Brill, Monografen 4, 1-78

The Foraminifera from the Siboga- Expedition

Hofker, J.

Hofker, J., 1933, Dansk Naturh. Foren. Kobenhavn, Vidensk. Meddel., Kobenhavn, Danmark., 148

Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen`s Pacific Expedition 1914-1916; Part LXII-Foraminifera of the Malay Archipelago.

Hofker, J.

Hofker, J., 1958, Contr. Cushman Found. For. Res., 9, 46-48

The taxonomic position of the genus Pseudoeponides Uchio, 1950.

Hofker, J.

Höglund, H., 1947, Zoologiska Bidrag fran Uppsala, 26

Foraminifera in the Gullmar Fjord and the Skagerrak.

Höglund, H.

Hohenegger, J., 2004, J. For. Res., 34, 9-33

Depth coenoclines and environmental considerations of western Pacific larger foraminifera.

Hohenegger, J.

Hohenegger, J., 2006, Paleobiology, 32, 70-99

Morphoclines, character combination, and environmental gradients: a case study using symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

Hohenegger, J.

Hohenegger, J., 2009, Galaxea, Journal of Coral Reef Studies., 2, 81-89

Functional shell geometry of symbiont-bearing Foraminifera.

Hohenegger, J.

An important function of symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera is to provide their endosymbiotic microalgae with light. At the same time, these foraminifera have to resist hydrodynamic forces. Foraminifera match these demands by constructing shells (tests) functioning as glasshouses. In shallowest regions of oligotrophic tropical seas, at the one end of the scale, foraminifera with spherical and thick lenticular tests develop special fixing mechanisms to resist extreme water motion. In the deepest euphotic zone, at the other end of the scale with extremely weak light and quiet water, foraminifera with flat discoid and blade-shaped tests possessing a high surface/volume-ratio position their symbionts just beneath the transparent test walls, intensifying the weak light through elevated test surface structures. Between these two extremes, foraminifera react to decreasing light intensity and water motion by the transition in shell form from spherical to extremely flat tests. A second way in test form from high energetic shallow water to less, but still energetic water is the transition from spherical to fusiform tests, again raising the surface/volume-ratio but not in the same degree as performed by test flattening.

Hohenegger, J., Yordanova, E., Hatta, A., 2000, J. Foram. Res., 30, 3-28

Remarks on West Pacific Nummulitidae (Foraminifera)

Hohenegger, J., Yordanova, E., Hatta, A.

Hohenegger, J., Yordanova, E., Nakano, N., Tatzreiter, F., 1999, Mar. Micropal., 109-168

Habitats of larger foraminifera on the upper reef slope of Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan.

Hohenegger, J., Yordanova, E., Nakano, N., Tatzreiter, F.

Larger foraminifera living in the upper 50 m in front of the fringing coral reef northwest off Sesoko Island, Japan show strong habitat differences. This study closely examines the distributions of larger foraminifers and relates these to a number of key environmental factors using rigorous statistical methods. Since all larger foraminifera house symbiotic algae, light attenuation by the water column is the most important limiting factor that must be dealt with wall structures. Water energy is also countered by test structure. The local topography is responsible for different intensities of hydrodynamic forces, which are expressed in various substrates, mostly coral rubble and coarse-grained sand. The genus Peneroplis, very common on the reef flat, clearly prefers hardgrounds of the shallowest slope parts down to 30 m, while Dendritina is restricted to sandy bottoms and avoids the uppermost meters of the slope. It can be found down to 50 m at least. Alveolinella shows a similar depth distribution to Dendritina, but is common on hard bottom. The distribution of Parasorites, which is restricted to sandy substrates, starts at 20 m and extends to 80 m. Sorites, on the other hand, was found only on firm substrates between the reef edge and 50 m. The same depth distribution was recorded for Amphisorus, but this genus is not correlated with specific substrates. Most of the Amphistegina species prefer hardgrounds, while Amphistegina radiata is also common on sand. The calcarinids, capable of withstanding high water energy, are abundant on firm substrates close to the reef edge. Only Baculogypsinoides inhabits deeper parts of the slope on sandy bottom and avoids the shallowest parts. Sections with hard substrates are settled by Heterostegina, even down to 80 m, although this genus was occasionally found on sandy bottoms. Nummulites, in contrast, is restricted to sands between 20 and 70 m. Operculina, starting at 20 m, also prefers sandy substrates, but rare individuals were detected on coral rubble and macroids.

Holzmann M., Hohenegger J., Hallock P., Piller W.E., Pawlowski J., 2001, Mar. Micropal., 43, 57-74

Molecular phylogeny of large miliolid foraminifera (Soritacea Ehrenberg 1839)

Holzmann M., Hohenegger J., Hallock P., Piller W.E., Pawlowski J.

  • HolzmannxMM2001xsoritids.pdf (602 KB)
Holzmann M., Hohenegger J., Pawlowski J., 2003, J. For. Res., 33, 277-284

Molecular data reveal parallel evolution in nummulitid foraminifera.

Holzmann M., Hohenegger J., Pawlowski J.

  • HolzmannxJFR2003.pdf (127 KB)
Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Hohenegger, J., 2006, Symbiosis, 42, 93-101

Molecular identification of diatom endosymbionts in nummulitid foraminifera.

Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Hohenegger, J.

Hottinger, L., 1977, Mémoires du Muséum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Paris., 40, Série C, 1-159

Foraminifères operculiniformes.

Hottinger, L.

Hottinger, L., Halicz, E., Reiss, Z., 1993, 33, Academia Scientiarum et Artium Slovenica Classis IV: Historia Naturalis

Recent Foraminifera from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea.

Hottinger, L., Halicz, E., Reiss, Z.

Hottinger, L., Halicz, E., Reiss, Z., 1991, J. Paleontol., 65, 18-33

The foraminiferal genera Pararotalia, Neorotalia and Calcarina: Taxonomic revision

Hottinger, L., Halicz, E., Reiss, Z.

Jones, T., R., Parker, W., K., Brady, H.,B., 1866, Monograph of the Paleontographical Society, London , 19, 1-72

A monograph of the forraminifera of the Crag, Pt. 1.

Jones, T., R., Parker, W., K., Brady, H.,B.

Langer, M. R., 1988, Rev. de Paléobiol. n° spécial 2, 827-832

Recent epiphytic foraminifera from Vulcano (Mediterranean Sea).

Langer, M. R.

Laure Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil & Jan Pawlowski, 2014, Journal of Eukaryotic Microbioligy, 62, 353-361 link

Molecular Phylogeny and Morphology of Leannia veloxifera n. gen. et sp. Unveils a New Lineage of Monothalamous Foraminifera

Laure Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil & Jan Pawlowski

Department of Genetics and Evolution University of Geneva, 1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland

Monothalamous (single-chambered) foraminifera have long been considered as the “poor cousins” of multichambered species, which calcareous and aggluti- nated tests dominate in the fossil record. This view is currently changing with environmental DNA surveys showing that the monothalamids may be as diverse as hard-shelled foraminifera. Yet, the majority of numerous molecular lineages revealed by eDNA studies remain anonymous. Here, we describe a new monothalamous species and genus isolated from the sample of sea grass collected in Gulf of Eilat (Red Sea). This new species, named Leannia veloxif- era , is characterized by a tiny ovoid theca (about 50 – 100 l m) composed of thin organic wall, with two opposite apertures. The examined individuals are multi- nucleated and show very active reticulopodial movement. Phylogenetic analy- ses of SSU rDNA, actin, and beta-tubulin (ß-tubulin) show that the species represents a novel lineage branching separately from other monothalamous foraminifera. Interestingly, the SSU rDNA sequence of the new species is very similar to an environmental foraminiferal sequence from Bahamas, suggesting that the novel lineage may represent a group of shallow-water tropical allogr- omiids, poorly studied until now.

Le Calvez, Y., 1958, Rev. Trav. Inst. Pêches Maritimes, 22, 147-209

Les foraminifères de la Mer Celtique.

Le Calvez, Y.

Lecroq, B., Gooday, A., J., Pawlowski, J., 2009, Zootaxa, 2096, 23-32

Global genetic homogeneity in the deep-sea foraminiferan Epistominella exigua (Rotaliida: Pseudoparrellidae).

Lecroq, B., Gooday, A., J., Pawlowski, J.

  • LecroqxetxalxZootaxa.pdf (681 KB)
Lecroq, B., Gooday, A., J., Tsuchiya, M., Pawlowski, J., 2009, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 156, 455-464

A new genus of xenophyophores (Foraminifera) from Japan Trench: morphological description, molecular phylogeny and elemental analysis

Lecroq, B., Gooday, A., J., Tsuchiya, M., Pawlowski, J.

The deep-sea floor is inhabited by a number of unusual and enigmatic taxa, unknown in shallow waters. These include the xenophyophores, a group of giant protists that construct fragile agglutinated tests. Here, we describe Shinkaiya lindsayi gen. et sp. nov., a new xenophyophore collected by the submersible Shinkai 6500 at a depth of 5435 m near the Japan Trench. The phylogenetic analysis performed on its complete small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence confirms that Sh. lindsayi sp. nov. is a foraminiferan that is closely related to another xenophyophore, Syringammina corbicula Richardson, 2001, and to a monothalamous (single-chambered) foraminiferan Rhizammina algaeformis Brady, 1879. In terms of morphology, the new genus resembles Syringammina, but its test wall is thicker, softer, and more weakly cemented. Moreover, the SSU rDNA sequences of the two genera are highly divergent. Mass spectra analyses reveal unusually high concentrations of some elements, such as lead, uranium, and mercury. The granellare system (the cytoplasm and the organic sheath that encloses it) is apparently devoid of barite crystals, which are usually abundant as intracellular inclusions in xenophyophores, but is rich in mercury (with 12 times the concentration of mercury found in the surrounding sediment). Fecal pellets retained within a tubular system (stercomare) concentrate heavy metals, including lead and uranium (respectively, two and six times more than that of the sediment). Based on a comparison of the compositions of the agglutinated test wall, the granellare, the stercomare, and the surrounding sediment, we discuss the impact of xenophyophores on their habitat.

  • LecroqxZoolxJxLinneanxSocx2009.pdf (610 KB)
Leutenegger, S., 1984, J. For. Res., 14, 16-35

Symbiosis in benthic foraminifera; Specificity and host adaptations.

Leutenegger, S.

Levy, A., 1977, Bull. Cent. Rech. Explor.-Prod. Elf-Aquitaine, 393-449

Révision micropaléontologique des Soritidae actuels Bahamiens. Un nouveau genre: Androsina.

Levy, A.

Loeblich, A., J., R., Tappan, H., 1988, vol.1-2, Van Nostrand, Reinhold, New York

Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification

Loeblich, A., J., R., Tappan, H.

Majewski, W., Pawlowski, J., 2010, Antarctic Science, 22, 271-281

Morphologic and molecular diversity of the foraminiferal genus Globocassidulina in Admiralty Bay, King George Island.

Majewski, W., Pawlowski, J.

Four distinctive morphological types can be found among living Globocassidulina in surface sediments of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). The molecular analysis of the SSU and ITS rDNA indicates that they are monospecific and belong to Globocassidulina biora, except for minute forms from deeper than 200m water depth which probably represent G. subglobosa. The morphological types of G. biora that show doubled or branched apertures, varied test size and shape as well as colour of cytoplasm, represent populations at different stages of ontogenetic development. However, the variability among large G. biora from the same locations is difficult to comprehend. It seems probable that G. biora is the only recent, large, shallow water Globocassidulina represented throughout the Antarctica, while G. crassa is typical for the Magellan region.

  • MajewskixandxPawlowskixAntarcticxSciencex2010.pdf (452 KB)
Mead, G., A., 1985, Micropaleontology, 31, 221-248

Recent benthic foraminifera in the Polar Front region of the southwest Atlantic.

Mead, G., A.

Meisterfeld, R., Holzmann, M., Pawlowski, J., 2001, Protist, 152, 185-192

Morphological and molecular characterization of a new terrestrial allogromiid species: Edaphoallogromia australica gen. et spec. nov. (Foraminifera) from Northern Queensland (Australia).

Meisterfeld, R., Holzmann, M., Pawlowski, J.

The foraminiferal family Allogromiidae occurs mainly in marine environments, although some genera are described from brackish and freshwater habitats. We report here the occurrence of a terrestrial allogromiid foraminiferan. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated by sequencing part of the SSU rDNA. DNA sequence analysis confirms a close relationship of the new species to the genus Allogromia. Morphological studies corroborate the affiliation to the family Allogromiidae but the lack of an entosolenian tube and an internal septum as well as the different ecology do not allow a classification into a known genus of this family. Taking the molecular, morphological and ecological differences into account, a new genus Edaphoallogromia with the type species E. australica is erected.

  • MeisterfeldxetxalxProtistx2001.pdf (547 KB)
Norman, A., M., 1878, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 5, 265-284

On the genus Haliphysema with a description of several forms apparently allied to it.

Norman, A., M.

Nyholm, K. ,G., 1952, Contr. Cushman Found. For. Res. , 3, 14-16

Studies on recent Allogromiidae: 1. Micrometula hyalostriata n. gen., n. spec., from the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden.

Nyholm, K. ,G.

Nyholm, K., G., 1974, Zoon, 2, 157-196

New monothalamous foraminifera.

Nyholm, K., G.

Orbigny, A. D`., 1826, Ann. Scien. Nat., 7, 245-314

Tableau méthodologiques de la classe des Céphalopodes

Orbigny, A. D`.

Orbigny, A. D`., 1846, Paris: Gide et Comp.

Foraminifères du bassin tertiaire de Vienne (Autriche).

Orbigny, A. D`.

Orbigny, A. D`., 1839, Pitoit-Levrault, Paris

Voyage dans l`Amérique méridionale: Foraminifères.

Orbigny, A. D`.

Orbigny, A. D’, 1826, Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelles, Paris, 7, 1-275

Tableau méthodique de la classe des Céphalopodes. 3ème ordre—Foraminifères

Orbigny, A. D’

Orbigny, A.D., , 1839, 2

Foraminifères de l'île de Cuba

Orbigny, A.D.,

In: R. de la Sagra (Editor), Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'île de Cuba. Arthus Bertrand, Paris

In: Parker, F.,L., Phleger, F.,B., Pierson, J.,F. (eds.)

Ecology of Foraminifera from San Antonio Bay and Environs.

Parker, F. L.

Parker, W. K., Jones, T., R., 1860, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 29-40

On the nomenclature of the foraminifera. IV (continued)

Parker, W. K., Jones, T., R.

Parr, W., J., 1950, Repts., Adelaide, ser. B, pt. 6, 5, 340

Foraminifera. B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Research Exped. 1929-1931.

Parr, W., J.

Pawlowski , J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Hallock, P., 2001, J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 48, 362-367

Molecular identification of algal endosymbionts in large miliolid foraminifers. 1 chlorophytes.

Pawlowski , J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Hallock, P.

  • PawlowskixJEM2001x48x313x362x367.pdf (598 KB)
Pawlowski , J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Pochon, X., Lee, J., J., 2001, J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 48, 368-373

Molecular identification of algal endosymbionts in large miliolid foraminifers: 2 Dinoflagellates

Pawlowski , J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Pochon, X., Lee, J., J.

  • Pawlowskixetxalx2001xJEM.pdf (124 KB)
Pawlowski J., Holzmann M., Debenay J.-P., accepted for publication, Journal of Foraminiferal Research

Molecular Phylogeny of Carterina spiculotesta and related species from new Caledonia

Pawlowski J., Holzmann M., Debenay J.-P.

Pawlowski, J., Bowser, S.,S., Gooday, A.,,J., 2007, Deep Sea Research II, 54, 1720-1726

A note on the genetic similarity between shallow- and deep-water Epistominella vitrea (Foraminifera) in the Antarctic.

Pawlowski, J., Bowser, S.,S., Gooday, A.,,J.

Many Antarctic species are known to have large bathymetric ranges. However, little is known about the genetic diversity of populations living at different depths. In certain microfauna- and meiofauna-sized taxa, some morphospecies can be divided into several cryptic genetic species. To test whether cryptic diversity is linked with depth of occurrence in Southern Ocean foraminifera, we compared ribosomal DNA sequences of selected calcareous foraminiferal species from shallow localities in McMurdo Sound and deep ones in the Weddell Sea. We found that at least one species, Epistominella vitrea, was genetically almost identical between the two localities, having a bathymetric range of over 1000 m. Our study provides molecular evidence for an extraordinarily large depth migration of Antarctic shelf foraminifera. It also suggests a relationship between populations of foraminifera from widely separated geographic regions of the Southern Ocean.

  • PawlowskixBowserxGooday-DSR2007.pdf (448 KB)
Pawlowski, J., Fahrni, J., Lecroq, B., Longet, D., Cornelius, N., Excoffier, L., Cedhagen, T., Gooday, A., 2007, Mol. Ecol. , 16, 4089-4096

Bipolar gene flow in deep.sea benthic foraminifera.

Pawlowski, J., Fahrni, J., Lecroq, B., Longet, D., Cornelius, N., Excoffier, L., Cedhagen, T., Gooday, A.

  • PawlowskixME2007.pdf (321 KB)
Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Fahrni, J., Cedhagen, T., Bowser, S.,S., 2002, J. For. Res., 32, 334-343

Phylogeny of allogromiid foraminifera inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences

Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Fahrni, J., Cedhagen, T., Bowser, S.,S.

Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Fahrni, J., Gooday, A., J., Cedhagen, T., Habura, A., Bowser, S., S., 2003, PNAS, 100, 11494-11498

The evolution of early foraminifera

Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Fahrni, J., Gooday, A., J., Cedhagen, T., Habura, A., Bowser, S., S.

  • PawlowskixPNAS2003.pdf (533 KB)
Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Richardson, S., 2003, J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 50, 483-487

Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the Xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan.

Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J., Richardson, S.

  • PawlowskixJEM2003xSyringammina.pdf (75.9 KB)
Pawlowski, J., Majewski, W., 2011, J. Foram. Res., 41, 3-13

Magnetite-bearing foraminifera from Admiralty Bay, West Antarctica, with description of Psammophaga magnetica, sp. nov.

Pawlowski, J., Majewski, W.

During an expedition to King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula, we discovered two species of organic-walled, monothalamous foraminifera bearing mineral particles within their cytoplasm. The particles are predominantly magnetite and titanoferous magnetite. Both species are phylogenetically related and belong to a clade of monothalamous foraminifera having in common the ability to ingest mineral grains. One of the species, described here as Psammophaga magnetica sp. nov., has an elongate organic test and mineral particles located near the aperture. According to the analyses of partial small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), the species may have a panantarctic distribution and is slightly different from a similar Arctic morphotype. The second species is morphologically and genetically similar to Allogromia crystallifera Dahlgren, 1962 from Scandinavian fjords. Because the genus Allogromia is distantly related to Psammophagidae, we have transferred this species to the genus Psammophaga. In several specimens of this species, we found SSU rDNA sequences closely related, but not identical, to Hippocrepinella hirudinea (Heron-Allen and Earland, 1932), another monothalamous foraminifer present at the same sampling site. The origin of these extraneous sequences is unclear and raises the question of authenticity of rRNA gene sequences in some foraminifera.

  • PawlowskixxMajewskix2011.pdf (2.55 MB)
Pawlowski, J., Majewski, W., Longet, D., Guiard, J., Cedhagen, T., Gooday, A., J., Korsun, S., Habura, A., Bowser, S., S., 2008, Polar Biol., 31, 1205-1216

Genetic differentiation between Arctic and Antarctic monothalamous foraminiferans.

Pawlowski, J., Majewski, W., Longet, D., Guiard, J., Cedhagen, T., Gooday, A., J., Korsun, S., Habura, A., Bowser, S., S.

  • PawlowskixetxalxPolarxBiol2009.pdf (652 KB)
Protist. 2011 Jul;162(3):394-404. Epub 2010 Dec 3. Pubmed

Molecular identification of sequestered diatom chloroplasts and kleptoplastidy in foraminifera.

Pillet L, de Vargas C, Pawlowski J

Department of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Kleptoplastidy is the ability of heterotrophic organisms to preserve chloroplasts of algal preys they eat and partially digest. As the sequestered chloroplasts stay functional for months, the "host" becomes photosynthetically active. Although remaining a marginal process, kleptoplastidy was observed in different protist lineages, including foraminifera. Previous studies showed at least eight species of the foraminiferal genera Haynesina and Elphidium grazing on diatoms and husbanding their chloroplasts. In order to characterize more precisely the origin of kleptochloroplasts in these genera, we obtained 1027 chloroplastic 16S rDNA sequences from 13 specimens of two Haynesina and five Elphidium species. We identified the foraminiferal kleptochloroplasts using a reference phylogeny made of 87 chloroplastic sequences of known species of diatoms and brown algae. All the analyzed specimens were performing kleptoplastidy and according to our phylogenetic analyses they seem to retain exclusively chloroplasts of diatom origin. There is no apparent specificity for the type of diatom from which chloroplasts originated, however some foraminiferal species seem to accept a wider range of diatoms than others. Possibly the diversity of kleptochloroplasts depends on the type of diatoms the foraminiferans feed on.

Pochon, X., Pawlowski, J., 2006, Symbiosis, 42, 77-88

Evolution of the soritids-Symbiodinium symbiosis

Pochon, X., Pawlowski, J.

  • PochonxPawlowskixSymbiosis2006.pdf (1.69 MB)
Quilty, P., G., 2010, J. For. Res., 40, 193-205

Foraminifera from late Pliocene sediments of Heidemann Valley, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica.

Quilty, P., G.

Qvale, G., Nigam, R., 1985, J. For. Res., 15, 6-12

Bolivina skagerrakensis, a new name for Bolivina cf. B. robusta, with notes on its ecology and distribution.

Qvale, G., Nigam, R.

Reichel, M., 1937, Mém. Soc. Paléontol. Suisse, 95-147

Etudes sur les Alvéolines

Reichel, M.

Renema, W., 2008, Mar. Micropal., 68, 286-298

Habitat selective factors influencing the distribution of larger benthic foraminiferal assemblages over the Kepulauan Seribu.

Renema, W.

Renema, W., Hoeksema, B., W., van Hinte, J., E., 2001, Zool. Verh. Leiden, 334, 115-149

Larger benthic foraminifera and their distribution patterns on the Spermonde shelf, South Sulawesi

Renema, W., Hoeksema, B., W., van Hinte, J., E.

Renema, W., Hohenegger, J., 2005, J. For. Res., 35, 15-21

On the identity of Calcarina spengleri (Gmelin 1791).

Renema, W., Hohenegger, J.

Reuss, A., E., 1851, Zeitschr. Deutsch. Geol. Ges., Berlin, 3, 75

Ueber die fossilen Foraminiferen und Entomostraceen der Septarienthone der Umgegend von Berlin.

Reuss, A., E.

Rhumbler, L., 1904, Archiv f. Protistenkunde, Jena, Deutschland, 3, p.203

Systematische Zusammenstellung der recenten Reticulosa.

Rhumbler, L.

Rhumbler, L. in: Wiesner, H., 1931, Deutsche Südpolarexpedition, Zoologie 12, 20, 53-165

Die Foraminiferen der deutschen Südpolarexpedition 1901-1903.

Rhumbler, L. in: Wiesner, H.

Richardson, S., L., 2001, J. For. Res., 31, 201-209

Syringammina corbicula sp. nov. (Xenophyophora) from the Cape Verde Plateau, E. Atlantic

Richardson, S., L.

SYRINGAMMINA CORBICULA SP. NOV. (XENOPHYOPHOREA) FROM THE CAPE VERDE PLATEAU, E. ATLANTIC Susan L. Richardson1 Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, 701 Seaway Drive, Fort Pierce, FL 34949 U.S.A. 1 Email: A new xenophyophore species, Syringammina corbicula, is described and illustrated from live specimens collected at 3106 m on the Cape Verde Plateau, off West Africa. This species is characterized by its epibenthic habitat and the unique basket-like depressions that rim the periphery of its hemispherically-shaped test of anastomosing, agglutinated tubes. Morphological features of the test and cytoplasm of S. corbicula are described in detail and contrasted with other known xenophyophore species grouped in the genus Syringammina. Laboratory observations of the pseudopodia extruded by live individuals are presented and the potential feeding behavior of S. corbicula is discussed briefly.

Rzehak, A., 1886, Naturf. Ver., Brünn, Verh., Brünn, 24, 87

Die Foraminiferenfauna der Neogenformation der Umgebung von Mähr.-Ostrau.

Rzehak, A.

Sabbatini, A., Pawlowski, J., Gooday, A., J., Piraino, S., Bowser, S., S., Morigi, C., Negri, A., 2004, Antarctic Science, 16, 307-312

Vellaria zucchellii sp. nov. a new monothalamous foraminifer from Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

Sabbatini, A., Pawlowski, J., Gooday, A., J., Piraino, S., Bowser, S., S., Morigi, C., Negri, A.

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Schlumberger, C., 1896, Mém. Soc. Zool. de France, sér.3, 22, 336-339

Note sur le genre Tinoporus.

Schlumberger, C.

Schönfeld, J., 2006, J. For. Res., 36, 355-367

Taxonomy and distribution of the Uvigerina peregrina plexus in the tropical to northeastern Atlantic.

Schönfeld, J.

Uvigerina peregrina Cushman 1923 and related taxa are extensively used for paleoceanographical studies. A high degree of inter- or intra-specific variability leaves the status of these species unclear and has hampered sound paleoenvironmental interpretations to date. The species concept and diagnostic features of Uvigerina peregrina and the closely related Uvigerina pigmea d’Orbigny 1826, Uvigerina peregrina parva Lutze 1986 are re-assessed in this paper. Uvigerina sp. 221 Lutze 1986 is formally described and named Uvigerina celtica n. sp. The overall size of the tests, the length/width ratio, and the morphology of costae are considered key diagnostic features while the presence or absence of spines is of minor importance for species characterization. Geographic and depth distributions of living Uvigerina taxa are described using faunal census data from the northwest African and western European continental shelf and slope from the 2 ° S to 70 ° N, and from the Caribbean. The regional distribution and inferred population dynamics reveal that Uvigerina peregrina, Uvigerina celtica n. sp. and Uvigerina pigmea are indeed different species. Uvigerina peregrina parva is most likely a subspecies of Uvigerina peregrina and not an ecophenotype.

Schröter, J., S., 1783, 1, Halle. J. J. Gebauer

Einleitung in die Conchylienkenntniss nach Linnée.

Schröter, J., S.

Schwager, C., 1866, Geol. Theil, Bd. 2, Abt. 2, 268

Fossile Foraminiferen von Kar Nikobar. Novara Exped. 1857-1859, Wien, Oesterreich.

Schwager, C.

Schweizer, M., Fontaine, D., Pawlowski, J., 2011, Revue de Micropaléontologie, 54, 175-182

Phylogenetic position of two Patagonian Cibicididae (Rotaliida, Foraminifera): Cibicidoides dispars (d’Orbigny, 1839) and Cibicidoides variabilis (d’Orbigny, 1826)

Schweizer, M., Fontaine, D., Pawlowski, J.

  • Schweizer_ea-2011c.pdf (617 KB)
Schweizer, M., Pawlowski, J., Duijnstee, I., A., P., Kouwenhoven, T., J., van der Zwaan, G., J., 2005, Mar. Micropal., 57, 51-67

Molecular phylogeny of the foraminiferal genus Uvigerina based on ribosomal sequences.

Schweizer, M., Pawlowski, J., Duijnstee, I., A., P., Kouwenhoven, T., J., van der Zwaan, G., J.

Schweizer, M., Pawlowski, J., Kouwenhoven, T., J., Guiard, J., van der Zwaan, B., 2008, Mar. Micropal., 66

Molecular phylogeny of Rotaliida (Foraminifera) based on complete small subunit rDNA sequences

Schweizer, M., Pawlowski, J., Kouwenhoven, T., J., Guiard, J., van der Zwaan, B.

Schweizer, M., Pawlowski, J., Kouwenhoven, T., van der Zwaan, B., 2009, J. For. Res., 39, 300-315

Molecular phylogeny of common cibicidids and related rotaliida (Foraminifera) based on small subunit rDNA sequences.

Schweizer, M., Pawlowski, J., Kouwenhoven, T., van der Zwaan, B.

Schweizer, M., Polovodova, I., Nikulina, A., Schönfeld, J., 2011, Helgol. Mar. Res., 65, 1-10

Molecular identification of Ammonia and Elphidium species (Foraminifera, Rotaliida) from the Kiel Fjord (SW Baltic Sea) with rDNA sequences.

Schweizer, M., Polovodova, I., Nikulina, A., Schönfeld, J.

Schweizer,M., Jorissen, F.,Geslin, E.,, 2011, C. R. Palevol, 10, 95-105

Contributions of molecular phylogenetics to foraminiferal taxonomy: General overview and example of Pseudoeponides falsobeccarii Rouvillois, 1974

Schweizer,M., Jorissen, F.,Geslin, E.,

  • Schweizer_ea-2011b.pdf (600 KB)
Seiglie, A., G., Grove, K., Rivera, A., J., 1976, Ecol. Geol. Helv., 70, 855-883

Revision of some Carribean Archaiasinae, new genera, species and subspecies.

Seiglie, A., G., Grove, K., Rivera, A., J.

Sinniger, F., Lecroq, B., Majewski, W., Pawlowski, J., 2008, Polish Pol. Res., 29, 5-15

Bowseria arctowskii gen. et sp. nov., new monothalamous foraminiferan from the Southern Ocean.

Sinniger, F., Lecroq, B., Majewski, W., Pawlowski, J.

Terquem, O., 1875

Essai sur le classement des animaux qui vivent sur la plage et dans les environs de Dunquerque

Terquem, O.

Tsuchiya M., Grimm W.G., Heinz P., Stögerer K., Ertan T.K., Collen J., Brüchert V., Hemleben C., Hemleben V., Kitazato H., , 2009, Marine Micropaleontology, 70, 1-2, 8-19 link

Ribosomal DNA shows extremly low genetic divergence in a world-wide distributed, but disjunct and highly adapted marine protozoan (Virgulinella fragilis, Foraminiferida

Tsuchiya M., Grimm W.G., Heinz P., Stögerer K., Ertan T.K., Collen J., Brüchert V., Hemleben C., Hemleben V., Kitazato H.,

In: Kawai, K., Uchio, T., Ueno, M., Hozuki, M. (Eds).

Natural gas in the vicinity of Otaki, Chiba-ken.

Uchio, T.

Vella, P., 1957, Pal. Bull. Wellington, New Zealand, 28, 1-64

Studies in New Zealand foraminifera.

Vella, P.

Villanueva Guimerans, P., Cervera Currado, J., L., 1999, Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr., 15, 191-202

The recent uvigerinids (benthic foraminifera) in the northeastern Gulf of Cadiz.

Villanueva Guimerans, P., Cervera Currado, J., L.

The distributional patterns and related environmental parameters for nine Uvigerina (benthic foraminifera) species occurring in the northeast Gulf of Cadiz are discussed. A new species (Uvigerina pusilla n. sp.) is described. Two assemblages (F1: Uvigerina peregrina and F2: Rectuvigerina phlegeri) are characteristic of the distribution of uvigerinids in this region, related to bathymetry and the mud-sand substrate in North Atlantic Superficial and Central water.

Walker, G., Jacob, E.: In Kanmacher, F., 1798, London, England, printed by Dillon and Keating

Adam`s Essays on the microscope

Walker, G., Jacob, E.: In Kanmacher, F.

Weiss Lawrence, 1954, Survey Prof. Paper

Foraminifera and origin of the Gardiners clay (Pleistocene), eastern Long Island, New York

Weiss Lawrence

Wiesner, H.,, 1923; Prag-Bubenec, 1-113

Die Miliolideen der östlichen Adria

Wiesner, H.,

Wilding, T., A., 2002, J. For. Res., 32, 358-363

Taxonomy and ecology of Toxisarcon alba, sp. nov. from Loch Linnhe, West coast of Scotland, UK.

Wilding, T., A.

Toxisarcon alba n. sp., is a giant, naked marine foraminiferan recorded at two locations on the west coast of Scotland, UK. Individuals were found buried or semi-buried in well-oxygenated silty sand at 10 to 30 m water depth. A distinctive, slightly raised mound of 18–40 mm diameter, through which there were many perforations, indicated the presence of an individual on the seabed. Partial removal of the overlying sediment revealed the naked opaque, white, sticky cell body. Toxisarcon alba exists in three distinct forms. In the most commonly occurring form (and the only form observed in the field), the central portion of the cytoplasm extends peripherally into numerous large cytoplasmic extensions and reticulopodia (branched form). In aquaria, some individuals transformed into a consolidated form (spheroid form) by retracting most or all of the reticulopods resulting in a cell with a very well defined edge. On four occasions a third very diffuse form, resembling a fungal mycelium, was observed where reticulopodia were spread over the sediment surface. The closest related species, based on analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences, is the newly described Toxisarcon synsuicidica.

Williamson, W., C., 1858, London: Ray Society

On the Recent foraminifera of Great Britain.

Williamson, W., C.

Yabe, H., Hanzawa, S., 1930, Scie. Rep. Tôhoku University, Sendai, ser. 2, Geology., 14, 1-46

Tertiary foraminiferous rocks of Taiwan (Formosa).

Yabe, H., Hanzawa, S.

Yordanova, E., Hohenegger, J., 2004, Micropaleontology, 50, 149-177

Morphoclines of living operculinid foraminifera based on quantitative characters.

Yordanova, E., Hohenegger, J.

Growth-independent test characters of the genera Operculina, Planoperculina, and Planostegina were investigated to determine relations to water depth in form of morphoclines. All characters describing test form – thickness, initial vector of the test spiral that is correlated to proloculus size, and radius expansion rate describing test contour – are correlated. The investigated Operculina and Planoperculina species (O. ammonoides, O. elegans, O. complanata, P. heterosteginoides) demonstrate significant morphoclines in these characters, which can be used for gradient estimation using regression analyses. Thick forms of Operculina with intensively coiled spirals predominate in shallowwater (20 to 40m); in the deeper parts of the euphotic zone (120m) they transform into thin forms possessing a weakly coiled spiral. Planoperculina heterosteginoides, with thin tests and therefore restricted to the deeper euphotic zone (starting at –80m), is the only symbiont-bearing larger foraminifer that can extend its distribution to just below the euphotic zone, where it develops extremely thin tests. Both Planostegina species, similar to shallow specimens of Planoperculina heterosteginoides in test form and thickness, do not show morphoclines and are thus restricted to depths between –30 and 90m (P. operculinoides) and –70 and –90m (P. longisepta). Chamber numbers, represented by the growth-independent parameters ‘chamber number of the first whorl’ and the ‘chamber number increase rate’ differ between Operculina species on the one hand and the Planostegina Planoperculina group on the other. Although both parameters are weakly correlated with characters describing test form, they do not show significant morphoclines either in the Operculina species or in the Planostegina Planoperculina group.

Zheng, S., Y., 1979, Stud. Mar. Sin., 15, 1-27

The Recent Foraminifera of the Xisha Island, Guadong Province, China, II.

Zheng, S., Y.